What nutrients are depleted during menstruation?

The menstrual cycle is a complex process involving hormonal changes that prepare the body for a potential pregnancy. While not every woman desires to conceive every month, it is essential to recognise that various factors can influence the regularity and health of the menstrual cycle, including diet and nutritional deficiencies.

Understanding the relationships between diet, lifestyle, and reproductive health can provide valuable insights into how our choices impact the menstrual cycle, regardless of our pregnancy intentions. By exploring these connections, you can better understand how diet and nutrient status influence your menstrual cycle's regularity and overall well-being.

Recognising the significant impact of diet and nutritional deficiencies on your reproductive health is crucial, emphasising the importance of maintaining a balanced and nourishing approach to support optimal menstrual health.

The Role of Diet

Diet plays a significant role in maintaining overall health, and it also has a direct impact on reproductive health. A well-balanced diet that provides essential nutrients to support hormonal balance and regular menstrual cycles is important. A diet rich in whole foods, including fruits, vegetables, complex carbohydrates, proteins, and healthy fats, can provide the necessary nutrients for reproductive health. 

Even if your intention is not to conceive, nurturing and supporting your menstrual cycle is crucial.

Iron depletion

With its constant cycle of endometrial growth and shedding, menstruation presents a unique challenge in maintaining iron homeostasis. Iron dysregulation is common in women's health issues, with potential consequences of heavy menstrual bleeding, where significant blood loss can deplete iron stores and lead to anaemia. Despite the challenge of measuring blood loss accurately, heavy menstrual bleeding remains a clinical concern, with a considerable portion of affected individuals displaying iron deficiency or iron deficiency anaemia.

For many women, dietary supplementation with iron is the primary treatment for anaemia due to heavy bleeding. While there has been a long-standing belief that increasing dietary iron could mitigate health issues related to heavy menstrual bleeding, experimental evidence is limited and of conflicting quality.

Additionally, the efficacy of these treatments can depend on whether the anaemia was caused by an underlying deficiency or ensuring the right balance of iron is crucial, especially during menstruation and pregnancy, where a lack of adequate dietary intake can put women at risk of deficiency. We're talking about how we address low iron levels and the possible downsides of not managing iron well. Understanding how iron, menstruation, and women's health are connected highlights the need for targeted approaches to handle iron-related challenges during monthly cycles.


Nutritional Deficiencies and Menstrual Irregularities

Deficiencies in certain nutrients can disrupt hormonal balance and lead to menstrual irregularities. Key nutrients that are essential for maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle:

1. Iron: A common nutritional deficiency in women, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding. Iron is crucial for producing haemoglobin, which carries oxygen to body tissues. Inadequate iron levels can lead to anaemia, fatigue, and irregular menstrual cycles.

2. Vitamin B complex: B vitamins, including B6, B12, and folate, are vital for hormone regulation and the production of red blood cells. Deficiencies in these vitamins can contribute to hormonal imbalances, mood swings, and irregular periods.

3. Omega-3 fatty acids: These essential fats, commonly found in fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, possess anti-inflammatory properties and support hormonal balance. A deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids may lead to increased menstrual pain, inflammation, and irregular cycles.

4. Vitamin D: Deficiency has been associated with menstrual irregularities and conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adequate vitamin D levels are crucial for producing reproductive hormones and maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.

5. Zinc: Plays a role in regulating menstrual hormones and developing healthy eggs. Deficiencies in zinc can contribute to menstrual irregularities and impaired fertility.

Lifestyle Factors and Menstrual Health

In addition to diet and nutritional deficiencies, various lifestyle factors can impact the menstrual cycle. Stress, inadequate sleep, excessive exercise, and excessive caffeine or alcohol consumption can disrupt hormonal balance and contribute to irregular periods. Adopting stress management techniques, prioritising sleep, and maintaining a moderate exercise routine can help promote a healthy menstrual cycle.

The Importance of Individualised Care

Each woman's body is unique, and factors such as age, overall health, and underlying conditions can influence the impact of diet and deficiencies on the menstrual cycle. Consulting with a healthcare professional can provide personalised guidance tailored to specific needs.

Diet and nutritional deficiencies are crucial in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle. Adequate nutrient intake, including iron, B vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and zinc, is essential for hormonal balance and regular periods. By prioritising a well-balanced diet, managing lifestyle factors, and seeking individualised care, women can support their reproductive health and optimise their menstrual cycle.

It is important to consult with professionals and undergo blood work before self-prescribing nutritional changes. Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can have multiple causes, and symptoms alone may not accurately indicate specific deficiencies. By seeking professional guidance and conducting proper blood work, you can receive personalised recommendations and ensure safe interventions based on accurate information. Working with qualified professionals helps monitor progress and address potential interactions or contraindications based on your unique health profile. Prioritising professional guidance is essential for your overall health and well-being.

Nutrient-Rich Foods to Support Menstrual Health

Maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is essential for overall well-being, including the health of the menstrual cycle. By incorporating specific foods into your diet, you can ensure an adequate intake of vital nutrients that support hormonal balance and reproductive health.

The food listed below provides excellent sources of iron, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and zinc—crucial nutrients in regulating the menstrual cycle and supporting overall reproductive health.

Including these foods in your diet can optimise nutrient intake and foster a healthier menstrual cycle. It is important to note that individual nutritional needs may vary, and consulting with a nutritionist is always recommended for personalised advice based on specific health requirements. Iron:

  • Red meat 
  • Organ meats (liver)
  • Chicken
  • Fish (such as sardines and tuna)
  • Beans, lentils, and chickpeas
  • Spinach and other leafy greens
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Quinoa

Vitamin B6:

  • Chicken
  • Fish (such as salmon and tuna)
  • Potatoes and sweet potatoes
  • Bananas
  • Spinach
  • Avocado
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Egg yolk

Vitamin B12:

  • Crustaceans 
  • Oysters
  • Organ meats (liver and kidneys)
  • Red meat 
  • Chicken
  • Fish
  • Dairy products (milk, cheese, and yoghurt)
  • Egg yolks

Folate (B9):

  • Dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, and collard greens)
  • Beans and lentils
  • Citrus fruits 
  • Wheatgerm 
  • Avocado
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli

Omega-3 fatty acids:

  • Fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines, and trout)
  • Flaxseeds and chia seeds
  • Walnuts
  • Soybeans and tofu

Vitamin D:

  • Fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, and sardines)
  • Fortified dairy products (milk, cheese, and yoghurt)
  • Fortified plant-based milk (soy milk, almond milk)
  • Egg yolks
  • Cod liver oil
  • Mushrooms (specifically exposed to UV light)


  • Oysters
  • Red meat
  • Chicken 
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Almonds
  • Ginger
  • Beans, lentils, and chickpeas
  • Cashews, almonds, and peanuts)
  • Brown rice and quinoa

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, and it's important to consult with a nutritionist for personalised dietary recommendations based on individual needs and considerations.